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LA FIRMA EN LAS TARJETAS BANCARIAS

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LA FIRMA EN LAS TARJETAS BANCARIAS

Identidad

Durante casi una década, Doug Taylor, un gerente de ventas que viaja a menudo por trabajo, ha firmado recibos de tarjetas de crédito que es nuestra firma en las tarjetas bancarias, con un garabato, propio de un bebé que coge un bolígrafo por primera vez, y ningún dependiente de caja ha rechazado nunca su “firma” como inválida.

La mayoría de las redes de medios de pago con tarjeta, están ya preparadas para afirmar lo que ha sido obvio para los compradores y comerciantes durante años: las firma en las tarjetas bancarias, no son una manera útil de probar la identidad de alguien. En breve, cuatro de las redes más grandes (American Express, Discover, MasterCard y Visa) dejará de exigir que se completen transacciones con tarjeta usando la firma como medio de autenticación.

La gente ha utilizado la firma manuscrita para probar su identidad, pero también se ha convertido en una expresión de personalidad, además de expresar un signo de crecimiento en la edad adulta. Pero hoy en día, la firma puede estar pasada de moda.

La firma

La firma en las tarjetas bancarias una forma centenaria de verificar la identidad de una persona, se está extinguiendo rápidamente. Los cheques personales son anacronismos. Las letras de cambio manuscritas son ya escasas. Cuando las firmas de las tarjetas de crédito finalmente desaparcan, las autenticaciones manuscritas serán relegadas a algunas circunstancias especiales como sellar una transacción de un alto valor, la compra de una casa, o conseguir que un/a famoso/a autografíe una pieza de recuerdo — hasta incluso eso, se está suplantado hoy en día por los ya conocidos selfies.

MasterCard lleva años queriendo hacer el cambio, pero se mantuvo neutral hasta que se comenzaron a emitir tarjetas inteligentes con chip embebido. Las compañías emisoras de tarjetas, que cubren los gastos por fraude de las tarjetas de crédito, decidieron insertar microchips hace más de una década para reducir las pérdidas relacionadas con el fraude. Estos microchips crean códigos únicos para cada transacción, haciendo que las tarjetas sean imposibles de copiar. Los chips han sido muy populares en Europa y Asia, pero solamente despegan en los Estados Unidos hace cuatro  años, cuando las redes de tarjetas empezaron a castigar a los comerciantes que todavía dependían de la vieja tecnología de la banda magnética como medio de autentificación.  En ese momento, las firmas se convirtieron en irrelevantes en la resolución de reclamaciones por fraude.

“La firma en las tarjetas bancarias realmente ha llegado al fin de su vida útil”, dijo Linda Kirkpatrick, jefa de desarrollo de negocios de MasterCard en Estados Unidos. Hemos tardado casi un siglo en crear la tecnología suficiente y poder superar la autenticidad de una firma manuscrita de manera segura y electrónica.

Transacciones offline

La tarjeta como medio de pago, se remonta a la década de los años 20 del siglo SXX, cuando las tiendas empezaron a emitir placas metálicas en relieve a las que superponían tiras de firma en papel y que permitían a los clientes agregar compras a su libro de “credito” y liquidar la factura más tarde a final de mes.

Treinta años más tarde, bancos y redes comerciales introdujeron tarjetas que se emitían dentro de una comunidad de tiendas minoristas. A finales de la década de los 50, un comprador ya podría salir de casa sin dinero en efectivo y comprar comestibles, gasolina y pagar la cena, asegurado sólo por su tarjeta y la firma manuscrita como medio de validación. Los investigadores analizaron los albaranes de crédito firmados para determinar si los titulares de tarjetas estaban presentes cuando se realizaron las transacciones. Se requerían firmas en todas las compras; los comerciantes que no pudieron cobrarlos generalmente tenían que absorber las pérdidas si las transacciones se litigaban. Las tiendas minoristas también podrían ser responsabilizadas si no cotejaban que la firma de un recibo no coincidía con la que estaba en la parte posterior de la tarjeta (titular).

Transacciones online

Entonces aparecieron las compras online, obligando a los emisores de tarjetas a llegar a nuevas formas de detectar y juzgar el fraude al instante. A medida que sus sistemas forenses de autentificación mejoraron, las firmas comenzaron a convertirse en reliquias.

Las redes de tarjetas empezaron a avanzar hacia a autenticación mediante PIN (Número de Identificación Personal) para deshacerse de las firmas de hace años. La mayoría dejó de requerir firmas manuscritas en transacciones por debajo de un determinado umbral, normalmente 20€. Pero los viejos hábitos nunca mueren, y la mezcla de reglas sobre qué transacciones requerían firmas y cuáles no — cada emisor tiene sus propias políticas — desalentó a muchos comerciantes, especialmente los más pequeños que basaban su relación con los mejores clientes en la confianza. Esta vez, sin embargo, las redes de tarjetas están enviando un mensaje consistente: “Las firmas están obsoletas”.

“Creo que están obsoletas”, dijo Mark Horwedel, el Director Ejecutivo del Grupo Asesor de comerciantes, para un grupo comercial que representa a grandes cadenas minoristas estadounidenses. El Sr. Horwedel dijo que esperaba que tres cuartas partes de las empresas de su grupo hubieran dejado de pedir a los clientes que firmen con sus nombres en los recibos de los pagos con tarjetas de crédito al final del año 2018. Acelerar los pagos en las colas de las cajas es un poderoso incentivo para los clientes que cada día valoran más su tiempo.

Las nuevas reglas varían en cada red de tarjetas. American Express está dejando caer su requisito de firma a nivel mundial, en todas sus tarjetas. MasterCard está terminando el requisito sólo en los Estados Unidos y Canadá. En cambio, Discover lo aplica México y el Caribe. Visa está omitiendo la firma manual en América del norte, pero sólo para los minoristas con sistemas de autentificación que posean con chip.

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